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Electronics Tutorial #1 – Electricity – Voltage, Current, Power, AC and DC

Electronics Tutorial #1 – Electricity – Voltage, Current, Power,  AC and DC
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Hey everybody and welcome to this tutorial we’ll begin getting to the basics of electronics now for this primary video what we’ll do gonna and have try and have a general figuring out of electrical power and how electricity works and the basic accessories of electricity now i will off with a little bit little bit of historical past slightly bit of science and also simply provide you with a number of common analogies to realize the distinctive varieties of electrical energy IE AC and DC so i’ll speak by way of these simply to begin getting planted a couple of seeds to your head earlier than we get down to one of the crucial conception we’re going to do an extraordinarily normal conception on some bureaucracy and with some sensible examples as good to exhibit share your few bits and pieces now I don’t want you to get too caught up i’m going to see on the historical past is for that reason interest and the science aspect of it once more it’s simply excellent to have a little bit of historical past however clearly will get down to the fundamentals after we begin looking on the bits of paper basically electrical power was once discovered a long time in the past now it was once learned obvious key many decades bc actually within the kind people started seeing electricity in the type of static electrical power or correctly even they began realizing with things like soup catfish and what glad once they touched them they’ve bought a shock via their bodies so that is when the idea of electrical power apparently started coming about static electrical energy certainly when distinct objects with cost that and reacted that form of led to describe you on electrical power and static electrical energy and what have you ever and the first real work on electrical energy and calculations and theorizing came over within the sixteen and seventeen hundreds and hundreds and sort of the more sensible applications of electrical power began happening in the 18 ribs in order an example let’s consider the useful like electrification of houses considering the fact that of the invent the invention of the incandescent mild bulb came over the 1880s actually in 1881 it appears this was once news to me cycle it used to be the us first but suppose it or no longer in sorry in the UK think or now not that’s the place I was born and there used to be the primary central energy station which supplied electrical energy to slightly village just a little village had a vote seeing that at that factor in time they were running on fuel power the gas vigor wasn’t affordable so that they decided to implement this new factor referred to as electrical energy and so they did put into effect that first energy station however apparently it wasn’t very inexpensive so sincerely reverted again to bet however the fundamental the kind of essential energy station to return on-line and begin feeding streetlights and residences occurred in the states in new york and if that used to be in eighteen eighty to say 12 months later and that used to be the essence pull street station they usually began off with using DC so direct present and they simplest later swap to AC now so let’s just speak a little bit about AC and DC now basically as soon as once more once we get down to the piece of paper i’ll explaining this but DC direct present is electrical energy simply flying in one path continuously whilst AC is clearly electricity in a conductor sport backwards and forwards pushing backwards and forwards close to like a piston on a steam engine backwards and forwards and on the grounds that of that reason there is a ways less effort worried pushing anything back and forwards then consistently looking to push in one course one more analogy to offer you an understanding of JC vs DC if you happen to picture any individual stitching a log you’ve obtained a saw and you are pushing it back and forth you push it you may have bought to pause you pull it back you may have got a pause you push it you go to pause so there may be this pause and that could be a creation of a sinus hallway the place electrical power goes after precise worth comes all the way down to zero .And then goes negative and then comes again again i am going to demonstrate this on slightly scope as well we are going to seem at the mains electrical power whereas if you can photo that equal person are having a circular noticed with a control that they’re having to crank round at consistent % constant p.C. Your hands going to get a lot more worn out doing that then had that sword that’s going from side to side where you might have received a pause however if you happen to image the noticed blade on the log whether you cranking a handle circular on that circular noticed or you might have acquired that noticed blade coming from side to side it can be nonetheless doing having the same outcomes on the wooden is not doing the same that’ll work and catching via the wooden whether or not utilizing and AC or DC to consistently cut on there so I simply need to plant their season you are at the moment now to get down to the science and and again I definitely don’t get bogged down in 22 minutes scientific stuff and even formulation at this point in time that is going to return in due direction once we working get down to working with accessories and placing circuits together that in essence electrical energy is a flow of electrons through a conductor now we will be utilising fluid dynamics of fluid mechanics to provide an explanation for this because it is a very fluid mechanics and dynamics of I’ve got an excellent correlation to the way electrical power works however in a conductor and metal behavior or whatever that can behavior electrical power you could have got atoms and electrons in there and basically it is the float of electrons from poor to confident that provide at a present competencies or electrical power now so that’s the speak of what we more often than not work in the place traditional electricity we suppose trustworthy flows from confident to terrible so don’t you get burdened i simply need you to have an understanding of the science behind it actually that electrons go with the flow from terrible to optimistic that’s the signal facet of it however for all intents and purposes what people use day today and what we’ll be utilising a proof is conventional electrical energy waft which is from confident to poor in phrases of direct current surely as you’ll be able to see with alternating present it can be a change it’s surely going back and forth and cycling in two instructions good enough so let’s get stuck down have a appear on the piece of paper and i’ve acquired there good enough so let me provide an explanation for this diagram that i have here then and we will begin going through the character components of it Bubba to have an figuring out what all of it method so sincerely this in essence is a huge water pipe this massive circular circle rectangle over right here this over here is a pump a water pump over right here we now have a valve which may also be closed all open to allow water by means of over here is a paddle or basically in essence and equipment on this case it is a paddle driving a shaft into a mill good let’s faux that essentially we milling or grinding flour or wheat into flour then we’ve got got over here out gauges are pressure gauge is telling us the pressure of the water within the pipe as you would literally in a in a pipe method and then over right here there may be a paddle which truly is measuring the go with the flow of water in the pipe and displaying it it can be spinning round and it can be exhibiting in essence like in the event you like on a rev counter on a meter over here proper so let’s first we’ll with out our pump now over right here you can become aware of we in case you like this to an electrical circuit the pump over here is in essence our vigor supply naive note see right here I’ve bought energy supply and inverted commas since ultimately once more if we speak concerning the science of electrons do you can’t particularly create or smash vigour so it’s no longer a supply per se but it is the piece that certainly generates the go with the flow of vigor in our circuit so I recorded the power source or the pump in essence it could be a battery or might be your mains outlet to your apartment but that is what in essence creates the stress and the float to get water flying around this pipe method and in essence that strain and go with the flow finally is the electricity flying round this circuit or this pipe method now on this pipe system as I said we’ve obtained these and pressure gauges over right here and these gift pressure gauges are measuring the pressure of the water they don’t have to be within the pipe itself you simplest desire a small little tap into your pipe to in reality select decide on up the strain now the strain of the procedure equates to your voltage so when we noted a voltage and a circuit that in essence is the strain which is there to push the water or in essence to push the electricity via your circuit as that you would be able to appreciate and this is something we will quilt off more commonly within the next session where if you happen to’ve acquired obstacles inside of your pi e like a valve or and act hair and the plants or what have you ever they will create a limit to the glide of the water round your circuit and that restriction in essence gigantic is the resistance so the you need ample strain to overcome that resistance they and their those restrictions to enable you to have water flowing or electrical power flowing through your circuit now let’s come right down to this device over here so if we want to measure the waft of electrical power by means of our method or the water glide throughout our pipe approach we actually must then we cannot simply have slightly simple tap into the pipe to read the stress as which you can in a water hose or what have you ever you truely must situation something in a bit of pedal or a to purchase a watch heavy throughout the float of the water to measuring it and it’s likewise when now we have a multimeter and you need to measure current you have got to place your multimeter in circuit to try this and it’s exactly the equal with measuring water you might have this pedal in there and that spins round and that then on a dial offers us the glide now float of electrical power equates to the present which is aunt and so there’s anything particularly principal to realise let’s faux that i’m going and close this valve over here so that I haven’t any waft of water do you fully grasp that this this stress gauge over here continues to be going to exhibit you a strain the water is pushing against it is going to be pushing up into that gage you continue to going to have stress that strain member is voltage so you continue to have a voltage advantage pushing tough towards over here that water stress when you opening this valve that starts aligned water flow then whilst you’ve obtained float you’ve got got present and present is amps so drift by way of a circuit is current which is amps so there may be something fundamental also to notice about drift when you start speaking about float expense rate implies time and as quickly as you it adding time to the equation glide expense then you definitely talking about consumption or amp hours and that is main on the grounds that again what we will do i will have a functional demonstration now also in one of the natural movies i will be posting soon on batteries and battery checking out all these components relate to one another and you’re going to have a excellent working out of what i’m doing for that battery trying out if you’re following what is going on on right here so the go with the flow expense is in actual fact your waft over time is an amp hour and that’s what equates to consumption what you’re making use of for those who had somewhat bakit catching your water on the end of this and that bucket is filling up that feeling of the bakit would equate to your consumption how a lot electrical energy you’re utilising or how so much energy you making use of additionally so quiet it’s particularly really a satisfactory analogy right here with utilising the pipe this closed pipe approach with a pump and a valve and strain gauges and some thing is measuring the float it is like an electrical energy circuit it wishes to be complete it wishes to be intact that intactness is something we might relate to whatever known as continuity and it’s off see continuity is anything that you should utilize a multimeter to measure now I i’m speakme a few multi me to move and spot my my video sequence on how to use a multimeter for novices I then equate a variety of this and how you measure these bits and pieces with a multimeter so in case you are new to this than those movies will help you as well and i’m going to annotate and with one of those right here correct in order that going back to that continuity you need the pipe intact to lie or water to drift by way of the pipe method likewise you want your foot to enable electricity to waft you need an intact system of conductors IE your electrical wires if in case you have a smash on your electrical wire over here identical to–why’s you broke the water pipe and the water the water would in essence begin spilling out after which your plant or you are extra over right here would stop working on the grounds that you shouldn’t have water glide now simply of you reduce a while you are now not going to look you love electrons flying out the edge hope with a bit of luck but the analogies the same if you happen to ruin the pipe and the waters basically flowing and no longer getting again up by means of the system then you’re now not going to reap to have the water waft to vigour your mole likewise with the wiring method if in case you have a breaking your wiring method the electrons are going to stop flowing your plants is going to discontinue working so let’s now faux we’ve got we return to having a whole working process let’s go to the excellent rationale we have electricity and that is ultimately to power a gadget and to do work so right here as I mentioned we have now got this pedal which is driving a shaft which is turning and milling stone right here which is milling our flower let’s faux so in essence that equates to an appliance that you simply could have in your house now sincerely should you’ve obtained taking the power out of the procedure to apply it that is the work being achieved via or water or the work being executed by your electrical power and that equates to vigor so there’s a closed direct relationship between your stress your go with the flow and the work being accomplished and that’s a direct relationship between voltage current and power and we are going to begin watching at this in unique once we begin watching at resistors and Ohm’s law those relationships and how they interact however however from right here all i would like you to appreciate essentially is that the outcome and what you’re watching for in terms of electricity and the go with the flow of electrical power is the work being performed your plants being related to your wiring system which in essence is utilising power which is a combo of your voltage and your present likewise despite the fact that innocence in this approach a pump let’s fake our pump is pumping our water around in a single path that might equate to direct current a single direction and of your electrical power glide steady push by way of the pipe system now equally could have you ever would nonetheless get your work accomplished as I was once explaining with a noticed slicing the piece of timber if this pump had a piston in it that was pushing backwards and forwards as an alternative of pumping in one direction as that you would be able to assume your pressure gauges would be dancing round going back and forth and that’s exactly in essence what occurs with alternating current your voltage is in fluctuating and up and down confident and terrible but even though you’ve gotten bought that go with the flow of electricity going back and forth as you will see your pedal is still going to be flipped backwards and forwards it is still going to grind your flower at the finish of the day so in electronics and that’s why we’re going to center of attention after this typically on direct current on the grounds that that is what we use for essentially the most part in electronics however understanding electrical power you will see that direct-present can vigor matters and alternating current which is used on your residence can vigor things despite the fact that it’s going back and forth in essence going on and off due to the fact that it it still does work at the finish of the day now let’s rapidly truely talk about why alternating current is used as opposed to direct current in your condo as I stated there’s much more takes a lot more vigour to for to make use of direct carrot on a huge system if you getting stocking to the high voltage larger voltages and what have you ever your losses across a section of wire become a ways bigger with direct current since the amount of vigour required to push that regularly in a single direction as opposed to back and forth so that is the one motive it takes much more energy and your losses are greater you need far thicker wire to make it convenient for the electrical power to go by means of for direct present then you definately do alternating current the other the other cause is the cause AC is used is that and you can generate a long way greater voltages with alternating current and that is some distance easier to transmit bigger voltage over lengthy distances after which change into that all the way down to a diminish voltage and get the present again when you get to a neighborhood or your condominium so you can transfer voltage at excessive voltage at lope at low current so that you don’t need thick sensible you might have got less loss and then you definately turn into that again to a your average voltage when you get to your condominium ok so let’s honestly put far from the paper swiftly and have a quick chat concerning the mains electrical energy that comes into your residence and the one factor certainly is it you comprehend a see besides being more efficient transmitted over an extended distance it’s also safer considering you’ve got bought that pause while it is going from side to side considering the fact that it really goes via zero and back once more it can be safer than DC considering that DC is consistently honor when you in the event you touch your collection electrocuted by means of electrical power and a see you’ve gotten obtained advantage it can be gonna kick you and kick your manner where is DC or snatch onto due to the fact it is simply consistently on any time to clinch up and hold where is AC tends to throw your approach so DC will probably impart a long way more vigor into you as good then AC will if in case you have related voltage and present now the one intriguing factor I discovered and it is something to hire surely that world wide distinctive international locations use exclusive voltages and frequencies now the frequency is most likely as i’ll show is you’ll be able to see that that sinusoidal wave as the power electrical energy is happening and off and that occurs at a specific price now right here in South after we use 220 volts at 50 hertz so 50 occasions a second the electrical power is going via a cycle on and off within the States it is a hundred and ten and and at a price of its 110 120 and it’s at a price of 60 hertz so 60 occasions a second and some of the gigantic motives for having using a hundred and ten or 120 within the states is that it is off see a long way say that you have obtained low you’ve got got a low voltage and the blend of the voltage and the present given that the current provide continues to be roughly the identical to the ordinary family outlet it’s roughly 15 or sixteen amps identical and inside on the same within the state an additional one intriguing thing to note is there are barriers with that defense aspect in the states and that is you get principally on the subject of tools which use want more vigor so the combination of your volts to your amps give you power and you’ve got much less of that within the states from a typical one hundred ten outlet and i after we lived within the states for two and a 1/2 years I got here to recognize as a snack i could not relatively recognize some thing I informed her then clicks about now not having sufficient vigour I i really experience drinking cup of tea i am an Englishman even her are living within that man experience my kapiti and as a result when we bought to the states and we had to buy our appliances I we went watching for a kittle now the states i could not fully grasp in individuals’s residences why every person had skittles which they put on this range on a hop on the top of a plate to heat up to warmth the water simply didn’t make sense to me a cattle makes some distance extra sense just ease it for laughs change on it switches of routinely whereas a stove does not change off robotically but then i spotted as a rule talking kettles require numerous power numerous vigour to work generally a cattle might be rated to run at 2,300 or 3000 watts and in the states in the event you appear at your how so much vigour that you could get out of your one hundred ten outlet usually it is no longer adequate to pressure natural kettles which would to find let’s stay in south africa so for this reason i spotted that is why folks have got to do their warmth the water for their coffee or they don’t seem to be that folks have espresso makers however 14 you would have whatever on a stone anyway I did eventually observed a kettle but I hunted excessive and low within the state to find a easy plug-in kettle anyway let’s get back to the energies and examples i’m going to show you what AC looks like and we’ll do an indication with DC to explain and stress or voltage between two sources and this becomes essential when once more once we get to the battery testing for the reason that to charge a battery you might have obtained a battery with a distinct voltage or a specific conserving pressure in it as a vessel with strain to charge your charger desires to beat that stress it is like when you obtained a vessel with the pressure you received a pipe going into it and you want to push water into that whistle you ought to have a larger stress pushing to get inside of there also is simply going to chase away likewise charging a battery or charger needs to be at a greater stress or better voltage to charge your battery equated to pumping filling up a balloon with a while you think that put blow air into that balloon you must have a bigger air strain for your cheeks to get the top of the blue likewise pumping up aight i will purchase a auto or a bicycle you are going to have a unique air strain in that tire and also you need to have a greater stress that you are pushing in that pump to get a into that tire let’s go have a appear at some useful examples correct so let’s have a look at our mains electrical energy right here in South Africa I’ve acquired this unity UT 81b in case you are all for it are there is a little evaluate on it have you not noticeable one before man or annotate that here and basically it is a fairly priceless device its scope meter its a mix of a multimeter and an oscilloscope so one can get to peer wave and electricity signals clearly now what I’ve carried out here I’ve these two probes as you’ll find i come from I’ve bought a multi strip mainly established with a connecting block there where I take off the electrical power or be very careful about working with mains electricity i don’t I obviously do not and advise you to head get your multimeter and just willy-nilly sticking the probes into outlet mains electrical power and chew you it might blow matters so please watch out proper uh-huh i’d alternatively hope that you are looking at this instance then trying to try this your self since should you do it improper and touch things that you shouldn’t you can damage and experience your self that’s correct as you can find I’ve obtained this set to measure voltage I’ve set it to measure ac voltage and we’ve gotta determine of around 230 volts and now i’m going to exchange the mode of this so we go into it’s a solution it can be form of scope mode or push the auto button in order that it can be sizes matters up for us and as you will discover there now we have bought this sinusoidal wave going down so let me simply trade the interval that we sing so what we can see here is a sinusoidal manner which goes constructive we acquired the script in essence is move hairs here and that is the zero line so that is the voltage going up constructive and then coming backtrack poor a constructive down- and that’s that again-and-forth motion in essence which is being being measured and as you can find right here we have received the voltage and we now have got the frequency right here in South Africa is at 50 Hertz and on this meter what you can do so that’s the frequency and in the event you count the we now have received the set to 10 milliseconds per division and should you depend the divisions we have acquired a repeating cycle so their cycle begins that is 1/2 of the cycle and then that is the completed cycle over here it is two divisions that’s 20 milliseconds that is the .Or the time it takes to whole a cycle 20 minutes seconds and likewise you get 50 of those in a 2d so that is what ac voltage appears like now i’m no longer going to concentrate too much more on AC voltage considering I’ve seen electronics we wish to use DC however i will show you what DC appears like on a scope correct so I’ve got my variable DC vigor deliver hooked up within the history its preset at thirteen volts I’ve acquired a range i can vary that I’ve bought a preset to a special variety of voltage due to the fact we’ll do it man demonstration with a battery after that I’ve received the team spirit skype meter linked up I’ve received to set two bolts on the moment it’s set on AC summer alternate it so it is back to DC and then i will now switch on the output of and my energy deliver and as you will discover we’re measuring displaying as a reading of 13.1 volts and absolutely as i change that the setting on the variable energy supply you’ll discover the voltage all of the strain altering now let’s go over to the scope so as you will see that there may be that line a straight line appearing on the skirt now try to get that so conceived in the reflection and as I differ the voltage you will find the voltage degree being famous there you will see that straight line simply going its top is changing relative to the zero line but it is dead straight it is regularly on always pushing it’s that’s direct current it can be not happening and off as we saw with with AC and that is what a DC and a DC sign appears like on an oscilloscope it’s only straight most often time ok so what have we obtained here now we’re moving over to our battery this can be a 12 volt lead acid battery i’ve bought it connected up a the positive opcion to the confident and the terrible on to the terrible that’s the polarity now I’ve also received my variable vigor provide SAT right here and i’ve obtained this what’s up meet yet another what’s up meter automobile keys virtually showing you the voltage or the stress the voltage expertise that’s sitting throughout the battery it can be sitting at about twelve point nine 9 eight volts on the second and as you will discover right here is the meter that also indicates you with is a waft of electrical power measured in amps and that’s at zero on the second so what i’m going to do i’m going to flip my vigor provide to roughly healthy the voltage or the stress that is sitting within the battery and then I overlook exactly correct i am gonna swap it on now and i’ve form of got it spot-on correct in view that for those who look here the dial over right here the digits over right here show that truly there is no glide of electrical energy and likewise there is nothing going into the battery in view that the pressures are the identical right so watch what occurs as i to step up the voltage and the strain as you will discover we to get a flow of electrical power which is being measured in amps on this case it’s milliamps so it is handiest small you will discover there is the power provide displaying and the me to the what’s up meat over here is showing that there is a drift so on account that now my voltage or my stress at this point is higher than the battery i can truly pushing again vigour or electricity into the battery as obviously step up that strain expand the pressure develop the voltage are likewise in the glide begin growing and i get extra go with the flow into the battery as i mentioned simply think about the blowing up of the balloon or the pumping up at the tire then if i drop the voltage honestly let’s just go take it up more so we can truely get a real representation of now got a sort of the very best most secure pressure that i don’t want to thrust back into this battery and once more an analogy here is that if you blowing up that balloon you think of the walls of the balloon are are usually not that thick if you happen to needed to have an extraordinarily high air stress pumping into that blue and potentially going to rip and shred these walls of the balloon and burst it and likewise it is the identical with electrical power when you do matters too swiftly but i need to larger voltage or what have that you would be able to damage home equipment so here has a secure voltage or stress 14.Four volts I’ve set it up and we’re pushing and now we have received a waft of electrical power at 276 milliamp going into the battery and slowly however definitely that each one daring up on the grounds that now we have got a in essence a closed I closed vessel here in essence with the battery so it is certainly pushing extra energy extra strain into it it’s pressure is going to construct up IE its voltage goes to construct up and in an effort to provide us an indication or the level of energy storage and charge inside the battery now i’m going to do the the other i’ll drop the stress or the voltage on my energy give and simply be aware what happens i will see we have obtained a relatively higher we pushed up the pressure within the battery install acquired a slightly higher stress on the on the power provide at the second but look what occurs as i drop under what the battery is I’ve acquired a poor rationale reading on my pass by saying outcomes now what the battery is doing considering the batteries received a greater pressure or larger voltage than my vigor give it is attempting to push electrical power again into the vigour provide now I liquid essentially you cannot quite push vigor again into the earlier players no longer design for that but in essence as you can find is doing it to a special extent and that each one i want to show is there is pressure differentials or voltage differentials investigate the flow way how electrical energy goes to float that’s with the intention to be main surely when we attending to watching at electric and digital circuits with that different power sources and what have you ever i will it can be just appear at that in terms of this diagram once more in in terms of extraordinary voltage potentials of specific pressures within the approach if I needed to fake that this valve over right here used to be additionally a pump however it was pumping in the reverse course to this pump that you would be able to appreciate that whichever pump used to be pumping had the best pumping stress they might be the one that would be winning successful the form of direction wherein the water can be flowing likewise if you had a second pump air flowing pushing within the equal direction you then get one other scenario where you going to get more higher pressure by means of the method and once we get all the way down to looking at circuits with parallel and c series vigor sources and resistors or what have you will come again to that analogy to begin explaining exactly how that every one hangs together but just you understand the major thing to stroll away with from this session is beneath is correlating is that fluid dynamics and pipes are superb technique to recognize how electricity flows and wires and to fully grasp that pressure equates to voltage that your drift is your present or your amps and it most likely these virtually relate to the genuine energy and parting to your equipment or something you looking to vigour adequate so i hope you gained some worth out of that first within the sequence thanks very a lot for looking at once more what I asked you to do is surely if they’re you picked up any errors or blunders in that do put up feedback down beneath and i will either annotate or right them with the fallout for the video what have you even have a link to this video in my discussion board so that we are able to construct up a sequence on the form words are less difficult to have open dialogue it can be some distance simpler at the enter from different folks who’re certainly that is wise than i am and can have had some good price to this series and there if you would like to help this work that i am doing then undoubtedly what you are able to do on my internet site and my that you could there that you can either make a donation you could be energetic in the forum i have an amazon store that you can buy matters from or actually just score the videos and looking at them helps what i accomplish that I do recognize your participation and let me simply looking at the movies we can continue this series are plant literally so long as there may be aid for them I continue and will proceed the following thing we appear at is surely and resistance we began with the accessories like resistors Ohm’s regulation and diodes transistors common sense gates and even matters like the triple five timer and then hanging circuits together and what have you so say if you are gaining any price out of this then surely do subscribe and follow the sequence and that i absolutely hope you realized some thing from it thanks very so much for looking at and i will seize you quickly for the following one in the series